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So... examine the evidence
So... adopt evidence-based methods
So... enhance learning
The importance of feedback
Learning activities which promote reasoning and processing support the development of constructs. These
constructs that students build have errors in them, missing facts and often overlook linkages.
The huge importance of feedback in teaching and learning is in the identification of these problems with
learner’s constructs, and the teacher-guided responses to mitigate for these errors and omissions.
Facts are the building-blocks for constructs
Learners are bombarded by facts- facts about science, language, mathematical manipulations etc. Each
learner forms linkages between these facts to form personal interpretations of what they have learned.
These personal interpretations are their constructs.
What does this mean?-
ELEPHANTS SITS MARSHMALLOW
SHOWDOWN IN THE POST
Each individual word has a meaning- our brains can relate the word to a personal interpretation. The
particular assemblage of words above however cannot be logically linked- we have no body of prior
learning that provides us with a construct that enables us to see the assemblage of words as
representative of a concept, process or model.
Learners vary in the complexity and correctness of their constructs, both due to differences in the number
and correctness of the facts and ideas they have learned, but also in regard of the linkages they have
formed between them in the construction of their personal constructs.
Reasoning leads to construct formation
Bloom’s taxonomy illustrates how learning can vary in complexity.
The lower three tiers on the representation to the right are linked to
reproduction tasks in the classroom- tasks in which students are required
to learn facts.
The upper three tiers are linked to reasoning tasks- activities in the
classroom in which learners are required to reason with facts. They are
required, through the learning activity, to process their knowledge.
The importance of these approaches to learning is that they support the
formation and testing of constructs.
Petty (2009) makes it clear that, “differentiation requires that learners are
set reasoning tasks, whatever their attainment”.
Understanding means, ‘linked with prior learning’ and not merely the ability to reproduce facts. Only
reasoning tasks allow the creation of constructs and the development of so called deep learning.