Optimising the classroom experience  Hattie considers the effects of initiatives aimed at influencing achievement from six different factors: 1. the student 2. the home 3. the school 4. the curriculum 5. the teacher 6. the approaches to teaching Hattie’s 2003 paper attempts to consider the relative effects of the key sources of variation on achievement: Hattie identifies that the major influence on achievement that can be enhanced through targeted educational change is what teachers do. It is teachers who have direct contact with learners- throughout the 15,000 hours of their schooling. Teachers and teaching approaches The rest of this section of teachit.so explores what teachers can do to enhance achievement, with fuller details on active learning and feedback, and on developing Mindset available through the main links on the navigation bar at the top of the page. Teachers Hattie (2009) identifies the following teacher contributions to student learning: the quality of teaching teacher expectations teachers’ conceptions of teaching, learning and assessment, and the students- this relates to teachers’ views on whether all students can progress and whether achievement for all is changeable (or fixed), and on whether progress is understood and articulated by teachers teacher openness classroom climate- having a warm socio-emotional climate in the classroom where errors are not only tolerated but welcomed a focus on teacher clarity on articulating success criteria and achievements the fostering of effort the engagement of all students Teaching Approaches Hattie (2009) identifies the following teaching approaches that are associated with student learning: paying deliberate attention to learning intentions and success criteria setting challenging goals providing multiple opportunities for deliberate practice knowing when one (teacher and student) is successful in attaining these goals understanding the critical role of teaching appropriate learning strategies planning and talking about teaching ensuring the teacher constantly seeks feedback information concerning the success of his or her teaching on the students  
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