Hattie highlights the extreme importance of the relationship between teacher and student in his
identification of an effect size of d=0.72 linking student-teacher relationships to achievement.
The individual effect sizes of 9 variables linked to teacher-student variables are shown below:
Teachers that are person-centred, show warmth and empathy, that embrace active learning and
that encourage learning and deep thinking increase the achievement of their learners.
This is a powerful set of findings that must be remembered when moving on to consider
Rules and Procedures
Marzano suggests an effect size of d=0.76 for the influence of rules and procedures on student
Marzano makes it clear that this
effect size includes strategies to
clearly express rules and
expectations, and to justify them
persuasively from the teacher’s
and student’s points of view.
A particular important effect size
that he offers is d=0.52 for
experimenting with improved
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